School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Rural area of Mongolia

December 25, 2020

School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Rural area of Mongolia

By Purev Narantsetseg

December, 2020

School water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programme was of great importance for access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene service delivery for children in rural area. School WASH projects implemented in 101 soums of 17 aimags of Mongolia.

                  New PPPs option involving private sector was used for school WASH projects implementation. From 2014 to 2020, 105 rural schools and kindergartens of Mongolia have received the improved drinking water, sanitation and hygiene facilities as a results of WASH projects implemented by the Mobicom LLC and World Vision.[1] They constructed the improved WASH facilities for children and six years kids, also gender challenges were reflected in WASH facilities in rural area.

                  Goal of school WASH projects was to resolve issues of schools and kindergartens without piped connection to centralized system in Ulaanbaatar and rural areas of Mongolia. School WASH have faced variety challenges and main of them is next:

-Low use improved water sources and sanitation facilities for children in particular in rural area.

-Significantly low access to improved sanitation for rural and poorer households.

-Unsafe water and unsafe hygiene practices are main cause of diarrhea and hepatitis.

-Limited quality infrastructure for water, sanitation and hygiene.

-Effects of climate change, desertification and pollution have impact to limited and declining fresh water source.

Next main actions and activities are made in scope of the school WASH projects:

-Joint Decree No.A253, 252 and 173 “Norms and Requirements for WASH in kindergartens, schools and dormitories” were approved in 29 June 2015.

-Equity focused water tariff setting methodology revision was made.

-Continued innovative solutions delivery to increase access to improved sanitation for children in schools, kindergartens and dormitories.

-Supported local governments to implement national standards for WASH in kindergartens, schools and dormitories.

-Worked to expand menstrual hygiene initiatives to enable girls to learn and study without fear and stigma.

-Handwashing and hygiene promotion system is strengthened.

-Menstrual Hygiene management in schools was advocated effectively.

-Improved outdoor ventilated pit latrines as container WASH facilities.  

The amount of water and sanitation related official development assistance that is part of government-coordinated spending plan was $2.5US million in 2017, this amount was going up by 2.2 million comparing to 2016.[2] 1.7% of Mongolia’s national budget for schools was spent on drinking water provision and wastewater management in 2011. Percentage for kindergartens was at the 1.1%. Budget was used for collection and transportation payment of water and wastewater management in rural area of Mongolia. For urban area, budget was used for water supply and wastewater management payments.[3] Revenue is coming from WASH centralized and decentralized service option both.  $171.8US thousand investment was made to school WASH projects in 2016 and $170.3US thousand invested to school WASH in 2017.[4]

Process to request and approve funding for improving WASH in schools is consisted of next steps:

-School identifies water, sanitation and hygiene needs and consults education departments of province and Ulaanbaatar. Main source for funding is the local development fund of local government or budget of central government.

-Education departments consider needs, assess priority, prepare list of schools with water, sanitation and hygiene improvement needs and submit list to local government or relevant ministries for review and prioritize request for funding.

-When funding request has been approved, local government and education ministry launches bidding process for design, drawing and cost estimates, which need to be approved by relevant agencies before bidding process for civil works is launched.

                  Government, education ministry and ministry of finance perform main roles and responsibility for funding and decision making to support and finance improving school water, sanitation and hygiene. Stakeholders such as local government, public water supply organization, local public utility service organization, local educational department, school management committee, school management and school staff and engineers, architects and cost estimators have perform main roles in water, sanitation and hygiene management, operation and maintenance.

Results

                  Rural schools, kindergartens, dormitories and households had benefits from improved drinking water, sanitation and hygiene facility and wastewater treatment system. As results of school WASH projects, 65000 children of 105 rural schools and kindergartens of Mongolia received the improved WASH facilities from 2012 to 2020. [5]

Mongolians had high benefits as results of the school WASH projects. School WASH programmes and water, sanitation, hygiene and wastewater treatment projects changed fully and positively living quality and culture-civilization of Mongolians, in particular in rural area. Rural children and households use healthy improved WASH facility, which is main source for healthy life and living environment. This practice benefited to education of rural communities, households and children and technological development in local area.

All indicators for WASH development were improved as results of implementation of the WASH projects. Schools had reached to next results on measuring school WASH indicators.

Drinking water:

-74% of schools have access to drinking water basic services at national level, 24% of schools have use limited services on drinking water and 2% of schools have no service for drinking water.

-85% of schools have use drinking water basic service in urban area.

-73% of schools have use drinking water basic service in rural area, 25% of schools use limited services to drinking water and 2% of schools have no service to drinking water in rural area.

-73% of primary schools have use drinking water basic services, 24% of primary schools have drinking water limited service and 4% of primary schools have no service for drinking water.

-73% of secondary schools have access to drinking water basic services, 25% of secondary schools have drinking water limited service and 1% of secondary schools have no service for drinking water.

Picture 1. Drinking water of Schools

Source: Estimates on water, sanitation and hygiene services in schools in Mongolia, UNICEF and WHO, July, 2020

Sanitation:

-63% of schools have sanitation basic services at national level, 21% of schools have use limited services on sanitation and 16% of schools have no sanitation service.

-70% of schools have use sanitation basic service in urban area and 30% of schools use limited services to sanitation.

-58% of rural schools have use sanitation basic service in rural area, 18% of schools use sanitation limited services and 24% of rural schools have no sanitation service in rural area.

-70% of primary schools have use sanitation basic services, 16% of primary schools have use sanitation limited service and 14% of primary schools have no sanitation service.

-63% of secondary schools have sanitation basic services, 21% of secondary schools have sanitation limited service and 15% of secondary schools have no sanitation service.

Picture 2. Sanitation of Schools

Source: Estimates on water, sanitation and hygiene services in schools in Mongolia, UNICEF and WHO, July, 2020

Hygiene:

-41% of schools have hygiene basic services at national level, 36% of schools have use hygiene limited services and 23% of schools have no hygiene service.

-53% of urban schools have use hygiene basic service in urban area, 34% of schools use hygiene limited services and 13% of schools have no hygiene service in urban area.

-35% of rural schools have use hygiene basic service in rural area, 41% of schools use hygiene limited services and 24% of rural schools have no hygiene service in rural area.

-44% of primary schools have use hygiene basic services, 36% of primary schools have use hygiene limited service and 20% of primary schools have no hygiene service.

-66% of secondary schools have hygiene basic services, 10% of secondary schools have hygiene limited service and 24% of secondary schools have no hygiene service.

Picture 3. Hygiene of Schools