25 December 2020

School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Rural area of Mongolia

— By AgenceLaQuincaillerie

Executive Summary

School
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Rural area of Mongolia

By Purev Narantsetseg

December, 2020

School water,
sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programme was of great importance for access to
clean water, sanitation and hygiene service delivery for children in rural
area. School WASH projects implemented in 101 soums of 17 aimags of Mongolia.


             New PPPs option
involving private sector was used for school WASH projects implementation. From
2014 to 2020, 105 rural schools and kindergartens of Mongolia have received the
improved drinking water, sanitation and hygiene facilities as a results of WASH
projects implemented by the Mobicom LLC and World Vision.[1]
They constructed the improved WASH facilities for children and six years kids,
also gender challenges were reflected in WASH facilities in rural area.


             Goal of school WASH
projects was to resolve issues of schools and kindergartens without piped
connection to centralized system in Ulaanbaatar and rural areas of Mongolia. School
WASH have faced variety challenges and main of them is next:

-Low use improved water sources and
sanitation facilities for children in particular in rural area.

-Significantly low access to improved
sanitation for rural and poorer households.

-Unsafe water and unsafe hygiene
practices are main cause of diarrhea and hepatitis.

-Limited quality infrastructure for
water, sanitation and hygiene.

-Effects of climate change,
desertification and pollution have impact to limited and declining fresh water
source.

Next main
actions and activities are made in scope of the school WASH projects:

-Joint Decree No.A253, 252 and 173
“Norms and Requirements for WASH in kindergartens, schools and dormitories”
were approved in 29 June 2015.

-Equity focused water tariff setting methodology revision was made.

-Continued innovative solutions
delivery to increase access to improved sanitation for children in schools,
kindergartens and dormitories.

-Supported local governments to implement
national standards for WASH in kindergartens, schools and dormitories.

-Worked to expand menstrual hygiene
initiatives to enable girls to learn and study without fear and stigma.

-Handwashing and hygiene promotion
system is strengthened.

-Menstrual Hygiene management in
schools was advocated effectively.

-Improved outdoor ventilated pit
latrines as container WASH facilities.  

The amount of water and
sanitation related official development assistance that is part of
government-coordinated spending plan
was $2.5US million in 2017, this
amount was going up by 2.2 million comparing to 2016.[2]
1.7% of Mongolia’s national budget for schools was spent on drinking water
provision and wastewater management in 2011. Percentage for kindergartens was
at the 1.1%. Budget was used for collection and transportation payment of water
and wastewater management in rural area of Mongolia. For urban area, budget was
used for water supply and wastewater management payments.[3]
Revenue is coming from WASH centralized and decentralized service option both.  $171.8US thousand investment was made to
school WASH projects in 2016 and $170.3US thousand invested to school WASH in
2017.[4]

Process to request and approve
funding for improving WASH in schools is consisted of next steps:

-School identifies water, sanitation
and hygiene needs and consults education departments of province and
Ulaanbaatar. Main source for funding is the local development fund of local
government or budget of central government.

-Education departments consider
needs, assess priority, prepare list of schools with water, sanitation and
hygiene improvement needs and submit list to local government or relevant
ministries for review and prioritize request for funding.

-When funding request has been
approved, local government and education ministry launches bidding process for
design, drawing and cost estimates, which need to be approved by relevant
agencies before bidding process for civil works is launched.


             Government, education
ministry and ministry of finance perform main roles and responsibility for funding
and decision making to support and finance improving school water, sanitation
and hygiene. Stakeholders such as local government, public water supply
organization, local public utility service organization, local educational
department, school management committee, school management and school staff and
engineers, architects and cost estimators have perform main roles in water,
sanitation and hygiene management, operation and maintenance.

Results


             Rural schools, kindergartens,
dormitories and households had benefits from improved drinking water,
sanitation and hygiene facility and wastewater treatment system. As results of
school WASH projects, 65000 children of 105 rural schools and kindergartens of
Mongolia received the improved WASH facilities from 2012 to 2020. [5]

Mongolians had
high benefits as results of the school WASH projects. School WASH programmes
and water, sanitation, hygiene and wastewater treatment projects changed fully and
positively living quality and culture-civilization of Mongolians, in particular
in rural area. Rural children and households use healthy improved WASH
facility, which is main source for healthy life and living environment. This
practice benefited to education of rural communities, households and children
and technological development in local area.

All indicators for WASH development
were improved as results of implementation of the WASH projects. Schools had
reached to next results on measuring school WASH indicators.

Drinking water:

-74% of
schools have access to drinking water basic services at national level, 24% of
schools have use limited services on drinking water and 2% of schools have no
service for drinking water.

-85% of
schools have use drinking water basic service in urban area.

-73% of schools have use drinking
water basic service in rural area, 25% of schools use limited services to
drinking water and 2% of schools have no service to drinking water in rural
area.

-73% of primary schools have use
drinking water basic services, 24% of primary schools have drinking water
limited service and 4% of primary schools have no service for drinking water.

-73% of secondary schools have access
to drinking water basic services, 25% of secondary schools have drinking water
limited service and 1% of secondary schools have no service for drinking water.

Picture 1.
Drinking water of Schools

Source:
Estimates on water, sanitation and hygiene services in schools in Mongolia,
UNICEF and WHO, July, 2020

Sanitation:

-63% of schools have sanitation basic
services at national level, 21% of schools have use limited services on
sanitation and 16% of schools have no sanitation service.

-70% of schools have use sanitation
basic service in urban area and 30% of schools use limited services to
sanitation.

-58% of rural schools have use
sanitation basic service in rural area, 18% of schools use sanitation limited
services and 24% of rural schools have no sanitation service in rural area.

-70% of primary schools have use
sanitation basic services, 16% of primary schools have use sanitation limited
service and 14% of primary schools have no sanitation service.

-63% of secondary schools have sanitation basic services, 21% of
secondary schools have sanitation limited service and 15% of secondary schools
have no sanitation service.

Picture 2.
Sanitation of Schools

Source:
Estimates on water, sanitation and hygiene services in schools in Mongolia,
UNICEF and WHO, July, 2020

Hygiene:

-41% of schools have hygiene basic services
at national level, 36% of schools have use hygiene limited services and 23% of
schools have no hygiene service.

-53% of urban schools have use
hygiene basic service in urban area, 34% of schools use hygiene limited
services and 13% of schools have no hygiene service in urban area.

-35% of rural schools have use
hygiene basic service in rural area, 41% of schools use hygiene limited
services and 24% of rural schools have no hygiene service in rural area.

-44% of primary schools have use
hygiene basic services, 36% of primary schools have use hygiene limited service
and 20% of primary schools have no hygiene service.

-66% of secondary schools have
hygiene basic services, 10% of secondary schools have hygiene limited service
and 24% of secondary schools have no hygiene service.

Picture 3. Hygiene of Schools

Source:
Estimates on water, sanitation and hygiene services in schools in Mongolia,
UNICEF and WHO, July, 2020

 

Rural schools have benefited as
results of the school WASH programme:

-99.6% of school age population used
drinking water facility.

-98.3% of school age population had
access to improved drinking water at national level.

-97.6% of rural school age population
had access to improved drinking water service.

-75.7% of rural school age population
had improved sanitation service.

-75.9% of rural school age population had handwashing facility with
water and soap.

Recommendations

-Give high priority to drinking
water, sanitation, hygiene and wastewater treatment system development and
improvements in rural area including aimag, soum and baghs levels.

-Resolve sufficient investment and
financing for the drinking water, sanitation, hygiene and wastewater treatment
system development and improvements, in particular in rural area including
aimag, soum and baghs levels.

-Make overall plan for rural area
including aimag, soum and baghs drinking water, sewerage, sanitation, hygiene
and wastewater treatment improvements, implement it and achieve main
objectives.

-Implement projects to construct new
schools and kindergartens with improved WASH facilities in rural area including
aimag, soums and baghs.

-Provide rural households and all
type organizations including rural schools, kindergarten and dormitories,
health centers and hospitals by basic service for drinking water, sanitation,
hygiene and wastewater treatment system.

-Develop WASH centralized and
decentralized option for improved WASH service at province, soum and nomadic levels.

-Develop urbanization, drinking
water, sanitation and wastewater treatment infrastructure and services in rural
area.

-Improve schools and kindergarten drinking
water basic services at the national, urban and rural levels and reach to 90%
in long-term.

-Improve schools and kindergarten sanitation
basic services at the national, urban and rural levels and reach to 90% in
long-term.

-Improve schools hygiene basic
services at the national, urban and rural levels and reach to 90% in long-term.

-Provide
sufficient data of schools and pre-primary schools for drinking water,
sanitation and hygiene development and better service delivery.

Lessons and practices:

-School WASH practices are important for improving rural water,
sanitation and hygiene services and facilities, for delivery better improved
WASH services to rural children and households and developing water and
wastewater treatment infrastructure and services in rural area. For that WASH
development policy of the current country is crucial to be addressed to the
rural WASH and school WASH development.

-Mongolian school WASH scheme
including funding process and process of planning for improved WASH school,
operational details and climate resilient technology are possible to use in
CAREC country school WASH programme, but national specifics of the current
country is necessary to be analyzed for using WASH school scheme and those
national specifics are important to be reflected policy, plan, programmes and
projects of the current country.

-Variety stakeholders including
government, ministries, agencies, local government, school management, school
committee, contractors involve in school WASH programme, stakeholders effective
coordination is crucial for school WASH programme successful implementation and
this network coordination is necessary to be strengthened.

-Sharing
knowledge on school WASH programme is crucial for rural area school WASH
development. For that ADB guide “Improving WASH in Schools, A guide for
practitioners and policy makers in Mongolia” has great contributions to WASH
knowledge and experience using.

-School WASH
in rural area influence to variety sectors such as education, health,
sanitation, hygiene, construction, water, public services, social development,
labour and social protection, energy and local development. So improvements of
school and kindergarten WASH reaches to development of those variety sectors.

-Providing
safely water without E-coli, improved sanitation facility and hygiene services
to rural people are vital for national development, improved WASH
infrastructure
and service
development, health of people and improving life quality. Water quality is
necessary to be confirmed in accordance with the standards.

-Private
sector involvements and PPP/concession has great contribution to the WASH
development in rural area, water supply and wastewater treatment infrastructure
and service development in rural area and better WASH service deliver to
people.

References:

1.
Equity in Public Financing of WASH, UNICEF EAPRO, 2016

2.
Environmental Protection Law of Mongolia,

3.
Green Development Policy of Mongolia and Action Plan,
2015

4.
Gender Mainstreaming in WASH in Schools in Mongolia
Promising Practice Brief, UNICEF for Every Child, 2016

5.
Hygiene UN Water GLAAS finding on National Policies,
Plans, Targets and Finance, UN Water and WHO, 2020

6.
Hygiene Law of Mongolia, www.legalinfo.mn

7.     Interview
with WASH Action Mongolia NGO founder Battseren Ts.,

8.     WHO/UNICEF
JMP Estimates, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene ladders for schools, July 2020

9.     Leo Heller,
Statement at the conclusion of the official visit to Mongolia by the Special
Rapporteur of the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation, Summary
of project performance,
Southeast Gobi Urban and Border Town Development Project, UN, Human
Rights special procedure, 20 April, 2018

10.
Kevin Tayler and Asako Maruyama, Improving WASH in
Schools, A guide for practitioners and policy makers in Mongolia, ADB, April
2020

11.
Mongolia: Access to Water and Sanitation, UNDP and
UNCDF,

12.   Mongolia: Additional
Financing for Southeast Gobi Urban and Border Town Development Project
, ADB Project
Administration Manual, ADB, April 2016

13.
Mongolia: Competitiveness report of aimags-2017, UB, 2017

14.
Mongolian Environmental Status Report 2017-2018, MNE,
2019

15.
Mongolia: Targeted Analysis on Water Resources
Management Issues, 2030 Water Resources Group, PwC, 2014

16.
Norms and Requirements for WASH in Kindergartens,
Schools and Dormitories, UNICEF, 2015

17.
Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and
hygiene, UNICEF, WHO & UNICEF JMP and WHO,
UNICEF, WHO & UNICEF JMP and WHO, 2017

18.
Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and
hygiene 2000-2017, UNICEF, WHO & UNICEF JMP and WHO, 2019

19.   Proposed Loan for Additional
Financing and Administration of Technical Assistance Grant Mongolia: Southeast
Gobi Urban and Border Town Development Project
, Report and Recommendation,
ADB, April 2016

20.
Summary of project performance, Additional financing of Southeast  Gobi urban and border town development
project

21.
UN Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation
and Drinking Water 2019: National Systems to support WASH, Global Status report
2019, UN Water and WHO, 2019

22.
UN Mongolia country Results Report 2017-2018, UNDAF
2017-2021, UNRCO 2019

23.
WASH in Mongolia: Institutional Analysis, ACF
Mongolia, UB, 2014

24.
www.adb.org

25.
https://www.unicef.org/mongolia/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-wash

26.  http://unicefmongolia.blogspot.com/2015/04/new-school-year-new-bathrooms.html

27.  Interview of
officials of Ministry of Nature and Environment, Geographic and geo-ecological
institute, National Center of Social health, National Committee of
Environmental Pollution,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEcT5VzdGMY

28.   Water Law of
Mongolia,
http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/mon154470.pdf

29.
Water Law of Mongolia https://www.ecolex.org/details/legislation/law-of-mongolia-on-water-lex-faoc154470/#:~:text=Law%20of%20Mongolia%20on%20Water.%20This%20Law%20makes,and%20restoration%20of%20water%20resource%20and%20its%20basin.

30.  http://usug.ub.gov.mn/mn/menu/5/%D0%A2%D2%AF%D2%AF%D1%85%D1%8D%D0%BD-%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%87%D0%BE%D0%BE

31.   http://sdg.gov.mn/Goal/?id=6

32.
https://www.unicef.org/mongolia/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-wash

33.  http://unicefmongolia.blogspot.com/2015/04/new-school-year-new-bathrooms.html

34.  Video/Interview
of officials of Ministry of Nature and Environment, Geographic and
geo-ecological institute, National Center of Social health, National Committee
of Environmental Pollution,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEcT5VzdGMY

35.   www.mglwater.mn

36.  www.adb.org/projects/37697-022/main#project-pds

37.  https://worldvision.mn


[2]6.a.1 Amount of water- and sanitation-related official development
assistance
, http://sdg.gov.mn/Goal/?id=6

[3]Improving and Managing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
in schools, Guide for Practitioners and Policy makers in Mongolia, ADB, April
2020, p.37

Logo Wappp 100

School
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Rural area of Mongolia

By Purev Narantsetseg

December, 2020

School water,
sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programme was of great importance for access to
clean water, sanitation and hygiene service delivery for children in rural
area. School WASH projects implemented in 101 soums of 17 aimags of Mongolia.


             New PPPs option
involving private sector was used for school WASH projects implementation. From
2014 to 2020, 105 rural schools and kindergartens of Mongolia have received the
improved drinking water, sanitation and hygiene facilities as a results of WASH
projects implemented by the Mobicom LLC and World Vision.[1]
They constructed the improved WASH facilities for children and six years kids,
also gender challenges were reflected in WASH facilities in rural area.


             Goal of school WASH
projects was to resolve issues of schools and kindergartens without piped
connection to centralized system in Ulaanbaatar and rural areas of Mongolia. School
WASH have faced variety challenges and main of them is next:

-Low use improved water sources and
sanitation facilities for children in particular in rural area.

-Significantly low access to improved
sanitation for rural and poorer households.

-Unsafe water and unsafe hygiene
practices are main cause of diarrhea and hepatitis.

-Limited quality infrastructure for
water, sanitation and hygiene.

-Effects of climate change,
desertification and pollution have impact to limited and declining fresh water
source.

Next main
actions and activities are made in scope of the school WASH projects:

-Joint Decree No.A253, 252 and 173
“Norms and Requirements for WASH in kindergartens, schools and dormitories”
were approved in 29 June 2015.

-Equity focused water tariff setting methodology revision was made.

-Continued innovative solutions
delivery to increase access to improved sanitation for children in schools,
kindergartens and dormitories.

-Supported local governments to implement
national standards for WASH in kindergartens, schools and dormitories.

-Worked to expand menstrual hygiene
initiatives to enable girls to learn and study without fear and stigma.

-Handwashing and hygiene promotion
system is strengthened.

-Menstrual Hygiene management in
schools was advocated effectively.

-Improved outdoor ventilated pit
latrines as container WASH facilities.  

The amount of water and
sanitation related official development assistance that is part of
government-coordinated spending plan
was $2.5US million in 2017, this
amount was going up by 2.2 million comparing to 2016.[2]
1.7% of Mongolia’s national budget for schools was spent on drinking water
provision and wastewater management in 2011. Percentage for kindergartens was
at the 1.1%. Budget was used for collection and transportation payment of water
and wastewater management in rural area of Mongolia. For urban area, budget was
used for water supply and wastewater management payments.[3]
Revenue is coming from WASH centralized and decentralized service option both.  $171.8US thousand investment was made to
school WASH projects in 2016 and $170.3US thousand invested to school WASH in
2017.[4]

Process to request and approve
funding for improving WASH in schools is consisted of next steps:

-School identifies water, sanitation
and hygiene needs and consults education departments of province and
Ulaanbaatar. Main source for funding is the local development fund of local
government or budget of central government.

-Education departments consider
needs, assess priority, prepare list of schools with water, sanitation and
hygiene improvement needs and submit list to local government or relevant
ministries for review and prioritize request for funding.

-When funding request has been
approved, local government and education ministry launches bidding process for
design, drawing and cost estimates, which need to be approved by relevant
agencies before bidding process for civil works is launched.


             Government, education
ministry and ministry of finance perform main roles and responsibility for funding
and decision making to support and finance improving school water, sanitation
and hygiene. Stakeholders such as local government, public water supply
organization, local public utility service organization, local educational
department, school management committee, school management and school staff and
engineers, architects and cost estimators have perform main roles in water,
sanitation and hygiene management, operation and maintenance.

Results


             Rural schools, kindergartens,
dormitories and households had benefits from improved drinking water,
sanitation and hygiene facility and wastewater treatment system. As results of
school WASH projects, 65000 children of 105 rural schools and kindergartens of
Mongolia received the improved WASH facilities from 2012 to 2020. [5]

Mongolians had
high benefits as results of the school WASH projects. School WASH programmes
and water, sanitation, hygiene and wastewater treatment projects changed fully and
positively living quality and culture-civilization of Mongolians, in particular
in rural area. Rural children and households use healthy improved WASH
facility, which is main source for healthy life and living environment. This
practice benefited to education of rural communities, households and children
and technological development in local area.

All indicators for WASH development
were improved as results of implementation of the WASH projects. Schools had
reached to next results on measuring school WASH indicators.

Drinking water:

-74% of
schools have access to drinking water basic services at national level, 24% of
schools have use limited services on drinking water and 2% of schools have no
service for drinking water.

-85% of
schools have use drinking water basic service in urban area.

-73% of schools have use drinking
water basic service in rural area, 25% of schools use limited services to
drinking water and 2% of schools have no service to drinking water in rural
area.

-73% of primary schools have use
drinking water basic services, 24% of primary schools have drinking water
limited service and 4% of primary schools have no service for drinking water.

-73% of secondary schools have access
to drinking water basic services, 25% of secondary schools have drinking water
limited service and 1% of secondary schools have no service for drinking water.

Picture 1.
Drinking water of Schools

Source:
Estimates on water, sanitation and hygiene services in schools in Mongolia,
UNICEF and WHO, July, 2020

Sanitation:

-63% of schools have sanitation basic
services at national level, 21% of schools have use limited services on
sanitation and 16% of schools have no sanitation service.

-70% of schools have use sanitation
basic service in urban area and 30% of schools use limited services to
sanitation.

-58% of rural schools have use
sanitation basic service in rural area, 18% of schools use sanitation limited
services and 24% of rural schools have no sanitation service in rural area.

-70% of primary schools have use
sanitation basic services, 16% of primary schools have use sanitation limited
service and 14% of primary schools have no sanitation service.

-63% of secondary schools have sanitation basic services, 21% of
secondary schools have sanitation limited service and 15% of secondary schools
have no sanitation service.

Picture 2.
Sanitation of Schools

Source:
Estimates on water, sanitation and hygiene services in schools in Mongolia,
UNICEF and WHO, July, 2020

Hygiene:

-41% of schools have hygiene basic services
at national level, 36% of schools have use hygiene limited services and 23% of
schools have no hygiene service.

-53% of urban schools have use
hygiene basic service in urban area, 34% of schools use hygiene limited
services and 13% of schools have no hygiene service in urban area.

-35% of rural schools have use
hygiene basic service in rural area, 41% of schools use hygiene limited
services and 24% of rural schools have no hygiene service in rural area.

-44% of primary schools have use
hygiene basic services, 36% of primary schools have use hygiene limited service
and 20% of primary schools have no hygiene service.

-66% of secondary schools have
hygiene basic services, 10% of secondary schools have hygiene limited service
and 24% of secondary schools have no hygiene service.

Picture 3. Hygiene of Schools

Source:
Estimates on water, sanitation and hygiene services in schools in Mongolia,
UNICEF and WHO, July, 2020

 

Rural schools have benefited as
results of the school WASH programme:

-99.6% of school age population used
drinking water facility.

-98.3% of school age population had
access to improved drinking water at national level.

-97.6% of rural school age population
had access to improved drinking water service.

-75.7% of rural school age population
had improved sanitation service.

-75.9% of rural school age population had handwashing facility with
water and soap.

Recommendations

-Give high priority to drinking
water, sanitation, hygiene and wastewater treatment system development and
improvements in rural area including aimag, soum and baghs levels.

-Resolve sufficient investment and
financing for the drinking water, sanitation, hygiene and wastewater treatment
system development and improvements, in particular in rural area including
aimag, soum and baghs levels.

-Make overall plan for rural area
including aimag, soum and baghs drinking water, sewerage, sanitation, hygiene
and wastewater treatment improvements, implement it and achieve main
objectives.

-Implement projects to construct new
schools and kindergartens with improved WASH facilities in rural area including
aimag, soums and baghs.

-Provide rural households and all
type organizations including rural schools, kindergarten and dormitories,
health centers and hospitals by basic service for drinking water, sanitation,
hygiene and wastewater treatment system.

-Develop WASH centralized and
decentralized option for improved WASH service at province, soum and nomadic levels.

-Develop urbanization, drinking
water, sanitation and wastewater treatment infrastructure and services in rural
area.

-Improve schools and kindergarten drinking
water basic services at the national, urban and rural levels and reach to 90%
in long-term.

-Improve schools and kindergarten sanitation
basic services at the national, urban and rural levels and reach to 90% in
long-term.

-Improve schools hygiene basic
services at the national, urban and rural levels and reach to 90% in long-term.

-Provide
sufficient data of schools and pre-primary schools for drinking water,
sanitation and hygiene development and better service delivery.

Lessons and practices:

-School WASH practices are important for improving rural water,
sanitation and hygiene services and facilities, for delivery better improved
WASH services to rural children and households and developing water and
wastewater treatment infrastructure and services in rural area. For that WASH
development policy of the current country is crucial to be addressed to the
rural WASH and school WASH development.

-Mongolian school WASH scheme
including funding process and process of planning for improved WASH school,
operational details and climate resilient technology are possible to use in
CAREC country school WASH programme, but national specifics of the current
country is necessary to be analyzed for using WASH school scheme and those
national specifics are important to be reflected policy, plan, programmes and
projects of the current country.

-Variety stakeholders including
government, ministries, agencies, local government, school management, school
committee, contractors involve in school WASH programme, stakeholders effective
coordination is crucial for school WASH programme successful implementation and
this network coordination is necessary to be strengthened.

-Sharing
knowledge on school WASH programme is crucial for rural area school WASH
development. For that ADB guide “Improving WASH in Schools, A guide for
practitioners and policy makers in Mongolia” has great contributions to WASH
knowledge and experience using.

-School WASH
in rural area influence to variety sectors such as education, health,
sanitation, hygiene, construction, water, public services, social development,
labour and social protection, energy and local development. So improvements of
school and kindergarten WASH reaches to development of those variety sectors.

-Providing
safely water without E-coli, improved sanitation facility and hygiene services
to rural people are vital for national development, improved WASH
infrastructure
and service
development, health of people and improving life quality. Water quality is
necessary to be confirmed in accordance with the standards.

-Private
sector involvements and PPP/concession has great contribution to the WASH
development in rural area, water supply and wastewater treatment infrastructure
and service development in rural area and better WASH service deliver to
people.

References:

1.
Equity in Public Financing of WASH, UNICEF EAPRO, 2016

2.
Environmental Protection Law of Mongolia,

3.
Green Development Policy of Mongolia and Action Plan,
2015

4.
Gender Mainstreaming in WASH in Schools in Mongolia
Promising Practice Brief, UNICEF for Every Child, 2016

5.
Hygiene UN Water GLAAS finding on National Policies,
Plans, Targets and Finance, UN Water and WHO, 2020

6.
Hygiene Law of Mongolia, www.legalinfo.mn

7.     Interview
with WASH Action Mongolia NGO founder Battseren Ts.,

8.     WHO/UNICEF
JMP Estimates, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene ladders for schools, July 2020

9.     Leo Heller,
Statement at the conclusion of the official visit to Mongolia by the Special
Rapporteur of the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation, Summary
of project performance,
Southeast Gobi Urban and Border Town Development Project, UN, Human
Rights special procedure, 20 April, 2018

10.
Kevin Tayler and Asako Maruyama, Improving WASH in
Schools, A guide for practitioners and policy makers in Mongolia, ADB, April
2020

11.
Mongolia: Access to Water and Sanitation, UNDP and
UNCDF,

12.   Mongolia: Additional
Financing for Southeast Gobi Urban and Border Town Development Project
, ADB Project
Administration Manual, ADB, April 2016

13.
Mongolia: Competitiveness report of aimags-2017, UB, 2017

14.
Mongolian Environmental Status Report 2017-2018, MNE,
2019

15.
Mongolia: Targeted Analysis on Water Resources
Management Issues, 2030 Water Resources Group, PwC, 2014

16.
Norms and Requirements for WASH in Kindergartens,
Schools and Dormitories, UNICEF, 2015

17.
Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and
hygiene, UNICEF, WHO & UNICEF JMP and WHO,
UNICEF, WHO & UNICEF JMP and WHO, 2017

18.
Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and
hygiene 2000-2017, UNICEF, WHO & UNICEF JMP and WHO, 2019

19.   Proposed Loan for Additional
Financing and Administration of Technical Assistance Grant Mongolia: Southeast
Gobi Urban and Border Town Development Project
, Report and Recommendation,
ADB, April 2016

20.
Summary of project performance, Additional financing of Southeast  Gobi urban and border town development
project

21.
UN Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation
and Drinking Water 2019: National Systems to support WASH, Global Status report
2019, UN Water and WHO, 2019

22.
UN Mongolia country Results Report 2017-2018, UNDAF
2017-2021, UNRCO 2019

23.
WASH in Mongolia: Institutional Analysis, ACF
Mongolia, UB, 2014

24.
www.adb.org

25.
https://www.unicef.org/mongolia/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-wash

26.  http://unicefmongolia.blogspot.com/2015/04/new-school-year-new-bathrooms.html

27.  Interview of
officials of Ministry of Nature and Environment, Geographic and geo-ecological
institute, National Center of Social health, National Committee of
Environmental Pollution,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEcT5VzdGMY

28.   Water Law of
Mongolia,
http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/mon154470.pdf

29.
Water Law of Mongolia https://www.ecolex.org/details/legislation/law-of-mongolia-on-water-lex-faoc154470/#:~:text=Law%20of%20Mongolia%20on%20Water.%20This%20Law%20makes,and%20restoration%20of%20water%20resource%20and%20its%20basin.

30.  http://usug.ub.gov.mn/mn/menu/5/%D0%A2%D2%AF%D2%AF%D1%85%D1%8D%D0%BD-%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%87%D0%BE%D0%BE

31.   http://sdg.gov.mn/Goal/?id=6

32.
https://www.unicef.org/mongolia/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-wash

33.  http://unicefmongolia.blogspot.com/2015/04/new-school-year-new-bathrooms.html

34.  Video/Interview
of officials of Ministry of Nature and Environment, Geographic and
geo-ecological institute, National Center of Social health, National Committee
of Environmental Pollution,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEcT5VzdGMY

35.   www.mglwater.mn

36.  www.adb.org/projects/37697-022/main#project-pds

37.  https://worldvision.mn


[2]6.a.1 Amount of water- and sanitation-related official development
assistance
, http://sdg.gov.mn/Goal/?id=6

[3]Improving and Managing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
in schools, Guide for Practitioners and Policy makers in Mongolia, ADB, April
2020, p.37